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古代年终奖:东汉奖黄金20斤宋朝宰相5只羊

来源:麒麟网2017-06-08 12:21:15责编:nonin人气:
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【内容导读】年终奖在我国很早就有。东汉时期,一到腊月,皇帝就开始给文武百官发年终奖。《汉官仪》中记载“腊赐”一项为:大将军、三公各钱…

年终奖在我国很早就有。东汉时期,一到腊月,皇帝就开始给文武百官发年终奖。《汉官仪》中记载“腊赐”一项为:大将军、三公各钱20万(相当于黄金20斤。汉代规定,1斤黄金等于1万铜钱。如《汉书》卷二四《食货志》下说:“黄金1斤,值钱万。”)、牛肉200斤、粳米200斛,特进、侯15万,卿10万,校尉5万,尚书3万,侍中、将、大夫各2万,千石、六百石各7千,虎贲郎、羽林郎3千。据说当时三公和大将军的月薪只有17500钱,领这一回年终奖,相当于一年的工资了。

宋代官员的俸禄包括正俸(钱)、禄粟(米)、职钱、公用钱、职田、茶汤钱、给卷(差旅费)、厨料、薪炭等许多令人眼花缭乱的名目,工资虽然很高,但年终奖却很少。每年冬至,皇帝给高级官员们发年终奖,宰相、枢密使以及曾经封王的大臣,每人只有5只羊、5石面、两石米、两坛子黄酒而已。

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清朝皇帝年底多用荷包赏赐大臣。《啸亭续录》载:乾嘉时期“岁暮时诸王公大臣皆有赐予;御前大臣皆赐‘岁岁平安’荷包一”。这赏赐的荷包里究竟会装着多少钱呢?岁末皇帝赐给蒙古亲王的那对大荷包里,一般装有各色玉石八宝一份;小荷包四对,内装金银八宝各一份;又小荷包一个,内装金银钱四枚,金银锞四枚,这也算是挺丰厚的“年终奖”了。

年终奖从哪里来?创收方式也各不相同。在我国古代,高级官员的年终奖由朝廷发放,小官和小吏的年终奖则需要他们自己想办法创收。秦汉魏晋时期,公文写在竹简上,公文传达过程中,用口袋把公文装起来,再糊上胶泥,盖上公章。另一个部门收到这个口袋,剥掉胶泥,把公文倒出来,装公文的这个口袋就成了废品。那时候装竹简的口袋有皮质的,有丝织的,也有麻布的,都能卖钱。攒的口袋多了,到年底运到市场上卖掉,年终奖就有了。

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唐朝宋朝有一段时间允许各州府衙门向民间放高利贷。高利贷的本金,有朝廷拨付的“本钱”和“公用钱”,也有官员们自己凑的集资款。获得的利润,国家财政抽小头,地方留大头,大部分利息都存进了小金库,其中一些钱用到岁尾发年货、发红包。明清时期官员的俸禄很低,京官的年终奖金不是朝廷发,而是来自地方官员。当时地方官员来钱渠道多,而京官就比较穷困一些。地方官员为获取信息和得到京官的照应,每当冬日降临,往往以为京官购置取暖木炭为名,向六部司官孝敬钱财,此谓“炭敬”。有诗证曰:“瑞雪逍遥下九重,行衙吏部挂彩灯。频叩朱门献暖炉,玉做火塘熔炭红。 ”

实际上,炭敬就是春节过节费,在地方上叫节敬。炭敬是“馈岁”(新年礼物)的意思,所以地方官员赠送所附的信里一般不直接说数目,而以梅花诗八韵、十韵或数十韵来代替,如果是四十两银子就说是“四十贤人”,三百两就说“毛诗一部”,显得很儒雅。有人送贝勒载涛一千两银子,信封上写的是“千佛名经”四个字,可是这个花花公子连这个意思都不懂,还拿给别人看,后来拆开来,才发现里面是一千两的银票。


历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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