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帝王九鼎的下落之谜:大禹铸造的九鼎哪去了?

来源:麒麟网2015-07-31 15:09:52责编:桂婷人气:
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【内容导读】传说大禹治水成功后,铸造了象征王权的九鼎。尽管王朝在不断更迭,九鼎却始终从一个国王的手上传到下一个国王的手上。没有九鼎,就不能算是个真正的国王。然而,到了秦汉之…
传说大禹治水成功后,铸造了象征王权的九鼎。尽管王朝在不断更迭,九鼎却始终从一个国王的手上传到下一个国王的手上。没有九鼎,就不能算是个真正的国王。然而,到了秦汉之间,九鼎却不见了踪影,由此人们怀疑九鼎到底真的存在吗?
传说大禹治水成功后,又铸九鼎。这不仅表明我国青铜铸造技术是十分高超的,而且还可以看到大禹是违反了部落联盟的传统,建立了家天下的国家,因为天子九鼎,九鼎是王权的象征。后人将争夺政权称为“问鼎”,建立政权称为“定鼎”,就是因为三代以来,九鼎一直被视为王权象征的缘故。
根据《左传》鲁宣公三年记载,夏朝初年,令九州州牧贡铜,铸造九鼎,事先将全国各地山川奇异之物画成图形,然后分别刻于鼎身。九鼎铸成后,陈列于宫门之外,使人们一看便知道所往之处有哪些鬼神精怪,以避凶就吉。据说此举深得上天的赞美,因而夏朝获得了天帝的保佑。九鼎一出世,就蒙上了一层神秘色彩。其实,透过神话因素,就不难看出它的政治价值。夏以九州之铜铸成九鼎,再以九鼎象征九州,无非是要表明自己乃九州之主,实现了天下一统。此后,九鼎便成了三代传国之宝。传说夏亡之后,鼎迁于商,商亡之后,鼎迁于周,表明天命之所归。
帝王九鼎的下落之谜:大禹铸造的九鼎哪去了?
春秋时期,随着王室力量的衰落,强大的诸侯对九鼎便产生了觊觎之心,而由楚国首先发难。《史记·楚世家》记载楚庄王八年(前606),楚庄王带兵攻打陆浑之戎,路经洛邑,特意摆开阵势,显示武力。周定王连忙派大夫王孙满前去慰劳。楚庄王咄咄逼人,劈头就问九鼎大小轻重如何。王孙满冷冷地说:“在德不在鼎!”接着又不紧下慢地回顾了九鼎转手的历史,并说如果本质美好光明,鼎虽小而犹重,反之,虽大犹轻。他进而指出:“周德虽衰,天命未改,鼎之轻重,未可问也。”楚庄王碰了一鼻子灰,只好作罢。这也就是成语“问鼎中原”的来历。
到了战国后期,周王室已是奄奄一息。据《战国策·东周策》所载,周显王时期,秦国兴兵临周,企图夺取九鼎。周求救于齐,迫使秦国退兵。但强秦岂肯善罢甘休,后来秦昭王终于灭掉了东周。
围绕着九鼎,有两个问题后人至今难以弄明白,一是大禹是否铸鼎,第二个问题与第一个问题相连,即九鼎的最后下落。
上引《左传》说九鼎铸于“夏之方有德”之时,而《史记》把铸鼎的时间略有提前,说成是“虞夏之盛”之时,并明方大禹是收了九牧之金而铸九鼎的,本意是象征九州。《墨子》说鼎铸于夏后启时。上述说法大体相近,得到了后代许多人的赞同,基本上认为鼎是大禹所铸,时间在夏朝建立的时候。
怀疑者认为秦始皇统一六国后,并没有从周室夺到九鼎,相反关于九鼎失踪的传闻倒是有鼻子有眼。汉灭秦,也没有见到鼎。刘邦登位时,秦王子婴交出的只有皇帝玺。《战国策》说周得九鼎时,每一只鼎要有九万人来搬运,九只鼎要有八十一万人来运输,这可能吗?近代古史辨派学者认为《战国策》多夸大之辞,禹铸九鼎是不可能的事实。

历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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