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解说中国传统结婚礼仪习俗

来源:麒麟网2017-12-04 10:44:29责编:桂婷人气:
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【内容导读】1.三书六礼    聘书:订亲之书,男女双方正式缔结婚约。纳吉(过文定)时用。    礼书:过礼之书…

1.三书六礼    聘书:订亲之书,男女双方正式缔结婚约。纳吉(过文定)时用。    礼书:过礼之书,即礼物清单,详尽列明礼物种类及数量。纳征(过大礼)时用。    迎亲书:迎娶新娘之书。结婚当日(亲迎接新娘过门时用。    纳采:古时婚礼之首,属意女方时,延请媒人作媒,谓之纳采,今称“提亲”。    问名:男方探问女方之姓名及生日时辰,以卜吉兆,谓之问名,今称“合八字”。    纳吉:问名若属吉兆,遣媒人致赠薄礼,谓之纳吉,今称“过文定”或“小定”。    纳征:奉送礼金、礼饼、礼物及祭品等,即正式送聘礼,谓纳征,今称“过大礼”。    请期:由男家请算命先生择日,谓之请期,又称“乞日”、今称 “择日”。    亲迎:新郎乘礼车,赴女家迎接新娘,谓之亲迎。2.换庚谱:媒人提亲后,若男女双方八字相合,没有相冲,便互相交换两家的庚谱,作为订亲的最初凭据。3.过文定:为“过大礼”之前奏,通常在婚礼前一个月举行。男家择定良辰吉日,携备三牲酒礼至女家,正式奉上聘书。4.过大礼:订亲之最隆重仪式,约在婚前十五至二十天进行。男家择定良辰吉日,携带礼金和多种礼品送到女家。5.安床:择定良辰吉日,在婚礼前数天由好命佬将新床搬至适当位置。然后,在婚礼之前,再由好命婆负责铺床,将床褥、床单及龙凤被等铺在床上,并撒上各式喜果,如红枣、桂圆、荔枝干、红绿豆。安床后任何人皆不得进入新房及触碰新床,直至新人于结婚当晚进房为止。结婚当晚,新人进新房后可让小孩在床上食喜果,称为“压床”,取其百子千孙之意。新郎的同辈兄弟可以闹新房,古时认为“新人不闹不发,越闹越发”,并能为新人驱邪避凶,婚后如意吉祥。6.嫁妆:收到大礼后,女家的妆套须最迟于结婚前一天送到男家。这批大箱小箱的嫁妆,为女家身份与财富之象征。嫁妆除珍贵的珠宝首饰外,主要是一些象征好兆头的东西,如:剪刀(蝴蝶双飞)、痰盂(子孙桶)、尺(良田万顷)、片糖(甜甜蜜蜜)、银包皮带(腰缠万贯)、花瓶(花开富贵)、铜盆及鞋(同偕到老)、龙凤被、床单及枕头一对、两双用红绳捆着的筷子及碗(有衣食)、七十二套衣服,用扁柏、莲子、龙眼(丰衣足食)。7.上头:男女双方在婚礼前夕,择定良辰(男方要比女方早半个时辰,即一小时前),进行上头仪式。这种仪式须由“好命佬”及“好命婆”(分别是男女双方的长辈或亲友,择父母子女健在,婚姻和睦者)在男女双方各自家中举行。一对新人均要穿上睡衣,女方应选择一个看见月亮的窗口案上,燃起龙凤烛,点起清香一炷,连同莲子、红枣、汤丸三碗,每碗六个或九个、生果、烧肉及鸡心向天参拜。男女双方并要准备尺、镜、剪刀、即所谓“龙头镜、较剪尺”,取其光明继后之意,让“好命佬”及“好命婆”替新人梳头,一面梳,一面说:一梳梳到尾,二梳梳到白发齐眉,三梳梳到儿孙满地,四梳梳到四条银笋尽标齐。上头象征一对新人已步入“成人”阶段,并祝福他们同偕白首。8.迎亲:现今,接新娘是整个婚礼的一大高潮。新郎在戥串石的陪同下,携着花球迎接新娘。当抵达女家后,第一关便是“入门”。若要顺利接得美人归,必须经过一连串智力及体能测试,必要时还加上歌情话,但最重要的还是丰厚的“开门利是”,众姊妹满意后才开门。入门后须留意的地方包括:    姊妹接过开门利是后,应从中抽出一成至五成封回利是给男家兄弟,上写“姊妹点金”。    新郎应以花球迎娶新娘(新娘不可自制花球)。    新郎顺利入门后,姊妹应以茶点招待兄弟。    开门后,新娘应由大姐或伴娘带领出来交给其父亲,再由父亲交给新郎,正式行夫妻见面礼。    新人先拜天地,再拜祖先。    新人再向双亲奉茶跪拜(若依照旧式俗例,新人未到男家拜见翁姑之前,不可跪拜。即是新人应站着奉茶给岳父岳母。不过现时已没有这么讲究,想跪便去跪,以示心意)。    新娘准备两封利是,分别为威旺金及满堂利是,过门后交予家姑。9.出门:在露天地方,由大姐或伴娘撑起红伞护着新娘,意指开枝散叶。大姐及众姊妹一边行,一边向上空、伞顶及花车顶撒米(可加红绿豆),用来“喂金鸡”,意思指鸡啄米后便不会啄新娘。吉时,女子出门时须由大姐背着上花轿,据说新娘双足是不可沾地的,否则便会带来麻烦。但现时即使有大姐陪同,也是自行步上花车的。最后上花车前,新娘子应向送行的亲友鞠躬,以示谢意。10.过门:过门指新娘由女家出门后正式踏入男家,拜见翁姑及男家其它长辈。11.三朝回门:三朝回门指在婚后第三天,新妇由夫婿陪同下,带备烧猪及礼品回娘家祭祖,甚至小住一段日子,然后再随夫婿回家。


历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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