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二曲学派的宣传思想是什么?二曲学派的心性修养理论

来源:麒麟网2017-03-01 15:04:35责编:姜和人气:
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【内容导读】二曲学派〖二曲学派〗创始人李顒(1627一1750)。李顒,字中孚,清周至(今属陕西)人。学者因称二曲先生。其学派因此得名。□以昌明关学为己任,年末四十,学已大…

二曲学派

〖二曲学派〗创始人李顒(1627一1750)。李顒,字中孚,清周至(今属陕西)人。学者因称二曲先生。其学派因此得名。□以昌明关学为己任,年末四十,学已大成,关中人士,多从讲学。顒幼时,其父李可从随明军征剿李自成起义军战死,顒去襄城寻父遗骸。在此期问,应常州守骆钟麟之邀,去江南讲学,“无锡、江阴、靖江争来迎,所至听讲者云集,执贽门下其众”。李顒曾多次固辞清政府的征召,在家筑一土室。“荆扉反锁”,不与外界交接,表现出崇高的民族气质。他肆力于学问,经传、史志、百家之书,靡不观览。奉毋以居,生活贫苦,教授自给,四方不远千里而来从学者日众。曾主讲关中书院,宣传其理学思想。他认为,关学自张载以后,至明后期,则不吕□、冯从吾。对冯从吾尤致推崇。自己则隐然以关学的继承者自居。李顒弟子甚众,“执贽著籍,号以千计”。较著者有王心敬、惠□嗣、张珥、李士□、马□、李修、王吉相、宁维垣、徐超、张□生、陆士楷、吴发祥、王所锡、刘□等。其私淑弟子有王承烈、孙景烈等。李□交游者有白焕彩、党湛、王化泰、王四服、张承烈、惠思诚、李柏、李因笃、王宏撰、顾炎武、高世泰、吴光、陆卿谷、秦松岱、范□鼎、杨甲仁、骆钟麟、蔡启□等。在其弟子中,最著者为王心敬。他受业于李□,相从十年,□著述多出其编订,“关中之学,二曲倡之,丰川继起而振之。李□与当时学者的交谊,与顾炎武最为重要。顾游关中,往访李□。他时居士室,破例开关一见,后又与顾多次书信往复,讨论学术问题。该派之学,以悔过自新为宗旨,以躬行实践为先务、以静坐观心为入手处。“谓学者当先观象山、慈湖、阳明、白沙之书,阐明心性,直指本初,然后取二程、朱子及康斋、敬轩、泾野、整庵之书,玩索以尽践履之功,下学上达,一次贯之。至诸儒之说,醇驳相间,当善读之,不然,醇厚者乏通慧,颖悟者杂竺乾,不问是朱是陆,皆未能干道有得也”。该派虽于程、朱、陆、王取其相资而成,而仍以王守仁之学为主体。

该派提出所谓“学髓”之说。“学髓”即学术的真髓。白焕彩将此推崇到极点,认为此“学髓”即是“正学”,传了“千圣绝响”。王四服在其《学髓序》中把学问分为三等:淹博与经济是学术的末而不是本,是肤而不是骨,是最浅近的;进德是本,是骨,是进了一层,但还不是髓;只有安身立命之旨才是骨中之髓,是原本,是“学髓”。学者只有求得“学髓”,才算求得了根本。“学髓”之名乃白焕彩所题,经王四服解说,进一步阐发了李□之意。“学髓”说表达了李□理学思想的本体论。李□认为,人有“人生本原”,又称“灵原”,此为人生的根本,也是天地万物的根本。“形骸有少,有壮,有老,有死,而此一点灵原无少,无壮,无老,无死,塞天地,贯古今,无须臾之或息。会得此,天地我立,万化我出,千圣皆比肩,古今一旦暮”,“通天地万物,上下古今,皆此灵原之实际也。,非此灵原,无以见天地万物,上下古今。非天地万物,上下古今,亦无以见此录原”,灵原“无声无臭,不睹不闻,虚而灵,寂而神,量无不包,明无不烛,顺应无不咸宜”。此种思想,与陆九渊、杨简、王守仁的主观唯心主义观点完全相一致。李顒认为,要回复到人生本原,须“欲理两忘,纤念不起”,这样才是学问的顶点。他认定人欲是恶的、非的、邪的,而天理则是善的、是的、正的,故人欲必须克治,一直到“无欲之可克”;天理必须存养,一直到“无理之可存”。“无理之可存”就是此心全然是天理,故无可再存养了。他要求学者固守本真,不要“随境迁转”,不要为声色货利、人情逆顺、世路夷险、穷通得丧、毁誉寿夭所动。一有所动,便是人欲。能复其本真,才可称之为“大勇”。该派在突出本体之学的同时,也强调功夫之学。功夫的起点是斋戒,功夫的基本是静坐。功夫到家,则呈现“湛湛澄澄,内外无物”的虚明寂定境界。达此境界,就能出离生死,超脱搐圣凡。这便是安身立命之旨,便是“学髓”,否则,即使博尽古今典籍,著作积案充栋,都不算是学,只是“玩物丧志”。

该派在心性修养方面,特别标榜“悔过自新”。李顒作《悔过自新说》,提出,“古今名儒,倡道救世者非一,或以主敬穷理标宗,或以先立乎大标宗,或以心之精神为圣标宗,或以自然标宗,或以复性标宗,或以致良知标宗,或以随处体认标宗”,“虽各家宗旨不同,要之总不出悔过自新四字,总是开人以悔过自新的门路”。他们认为,人性来源于天地之理,是至善无恶、至粹无理的,但是,为气质所蔽,为情欲所牵,为习俗所围,为时势所移,逐渐受到剥蚀、迁流,以至成为卑鄙乖谬的小人。

历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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