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各个朝代的儒家代表人物介绍 儒家代表人物有哪些?

来源:麒麟网2017-05-12 16:30:30责编:林林人气:
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【内容导读】儒学自春秋战国以来,延续到清朝乃至现今。儒家思想的地位一直都是思想的中心,是思想界的主流。为什么儒家思想经久不衰,是因为儒学经典不断推陈出新,适应时代的发展。在…

儒学自春秋战国以来,延续到清朝乃至现今。儒家思想的地位一直都是思想的中心,是思想界的主流。为什么儒家思想经久不衰,是因为儒学经典不断推陈出新,适应时代的发展。在这方面,多亏了各个朝代的儒家代表人物,是他们是推动儒学的发展。

一:春秋战国——孔子、孟子、荀子

孔子

作品:《论语》、《孟子》、《荀子》

儒家是战国时期重要的学派之一,它以春秋时孔子为师,以六艺为法,崇尚「礼乐」和「仁义」,提倡「忠恕」和不偏不倚的「中庸」之道,主张「德治」和「仁政」,重视道德伦理教育和人的自身修养的一个学术派别。

儒家强调教育的功能,认为重教化、轻刑罚是国家安定、人民富裕幸福的必由之路。主张「有教无类」,对统治者和被统治者都应该进行教育,使全国上下都成为道德高尚的人。

在政治上,还主张以礼治国,以德服人,呼吁恢复「周礼」,并认为「周礼」是实现理想政治的理想大道。至战国时,儒家分有八派,重要的有孟子和荀子两派。

孟子的思想主要是“民贵君轻”,提倡统治者实行“仁政”,在对人性的论述上,他认为人性本善,提出“性善论 ”,与荀子的“性恶论”截然不同,荀子之所以提出人性本恶,也是战国时期社会矛盾更加尖锐的表现。

二:汉代——董仲舒

董仲舒

董仲舒(公元前179年-前104年),西汉广川人,思想家、政治家、教育家,唯心主义哲学家和今文经学大师。汉景帝时任博士,讲授《公羊春秋》。汉武帝元光元年(前134),武帝下诏征求治国方略,董仲舒在著名的《举贤良对策》中系统地提出了“天人感应”、“大一统”学说和“诸不在六艺之科、孔子之术者,皆绝其道,勿使并进。”、“罢黜百家,独尊儒术”的主张为武帝所采纳,使儒学成为中国社会正统思想,影响长达二千多年。其学以儒家宗法思想为中心,杂以阴阳五行说,把神权、君权、父权、夫权贯串在一起,形成帝制神学体系。

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