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清代宋学派是怎么来的?清代宋学派的发展历程

来源:麒麟网2016-10-18 14:45:47责编:谢荣人气:
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【内容导读】清代宋学派是指以方东树、唐鉴等为代表的批评当时汉学家以六经为宗、以训诂治经,遵循宋明理学家以义理注释经典的学派。清代乾嘉之际,以吴派、皖派、扬州学派为主体的纯汉…

清代宋学派是指以方东树、唐鉴等为代表的批评当时汉学家以六经为宗、以训诂治经,遵循宋明理学家以义理注释经典的学派。

清代乾嘉之际,以吴派、皖派、扬州学派为主体的纯汉学研究风靡朝野,成为清代中叶学术发展的主流,与这股学术思潮互为异趣的,是所谓“宋学”派的出现。“宋学”即宋代经学的简称。宋学作为经学史上的重要学派,盛行于宋明时期,沿迄至清代初期。其治经特点是训释经典注重义理,援引天理、性命为说,兼杂佛、道思想。于诸经中,尤重《大学》、《中庸》、《论语》、《孟子》四书,崇尚程颐、朱熹的经注。

清初,宋学得到官方的大力提倡,顺治、康熙、雍正、乾隆不但亲自纂定理学著作(如《周易折中》、《周易述义》、《书经传说汇纂》、《诗经传说汇纂》)等,而且重用理学大师。因此,宋学成为清初的官方哲学思想。清初的经学研究,一尊朱注。如当时的理学名臣熊赐履一生学术宗旨以默识为真修,以笃行为至教,由程朱之途上溯孔孟。李光地虽是《易》学名家,但学风一同于论理、道、心、性。所撰《周易通论》,杂揉象数、义理,兼收周、邵、程、朱各家,补缀连贯,并无新意。陆陇其认为“继孔子而明六艺者,朱子也。非孔子之道皆当绝,则非朱子之道皆当绝,此今日挽回世道之要也”。吕留良笃信朱学,维护朱学不遗余力。此外如汤斌、魏象枢、魏裔介等虽也是宋学名家,但对宋学并无系统研究,仅以朱学仰承朝廷意旨,以达通显而已。乾隆初期,王懋竑作《朱子年谱》,江永作《近思路录集注》,李绂作《陆子年谱》,张扬程朱、陆王之学,但学风已由空谈玄理转向考据整理。如王懋竑的《朱子年谱考异》就以考据见长。稍后有唐鉴关于“孟子之后,传圣人之道以存经者,仍朱子一人而已矣”的鼓噪,但作为清初的宋学,却已呈颓势。

乾嘉时,儒经汉疏的研究炽盛,所谓“家家许、郑,人人贾、马”,汉学如日中天。对此,首先与汉学立异维护宋学的则是安徽桐城的方苞、姚鼐、翁方刚等一批从事散文创作的文士。梁启超认为:他们诵法曾巩、归有光,造立所谓古文义法,号称“桐城派”;又好述欧阳修“因文见道”之,以孔、孟、韩、欧、程、朱以来之道自任,而与当时所谓汉学者相轻(《清代学术概论》十九)。如翁方刚认为汉学家对儒家经典的考订,应当为义理服务,主张“考订之事,必以义理为主”,认为经典研究在于“欲明义理而已。”又如姚鼐认为:“今世学者乃思一切矫之,以专宗汉学为至,以攻程朱为能;倡于一二专已好名之人,而相率而效者,因大为学术之害。”(《惜抱轩文集·复蒋松如书》)然而翁方刚、姚鼐虽以理学为学术宗旨,他们的经学研究却汉、宋兼采。翁方刚对汉学家在语言文字方面作出的贡献还备加推崇,说“平心而论,《说文》、《尔雅》之训诂,《释文》之音义,厘然具存,唯在学者善取尔。”姚鼐更主张义理、词章、考据三者并重。他们与后来那些严守宋学门户的学者有所区别。直到称为“姚门四杰”的方东树、管同、梅曾亮、刘开才以扬宋抑汉为己任,其中对汉学提出系统批评的则是方东树。他认为,近世崇尚经典考证,“专与宋儒为水火,而其人类皆以鸿名博学,为士林所重,驰骋笔舌,贯穿百家,遂使数十年间承学之士,耳目心思为之大障。”(《汉学商兑序例》)指出吴派学者惠栋等人,自囿于汉学壁垒,专与宋学对立,孜孜以训诂考证相标榜,其结果“弃本贵末,违戾诋诬于圣人躬行求仁、修齐治平之教”,痛斥汉学为“名为治经,实则乱经;名为卫道,实则叛道”,声称汉学之害,甚于洪水猛兽。他曾从六个方面逐条批驳汉学之失(参见本书“方东树”条),企图重振程朱理学的权威。

方东树之后,宋学派有当涂夏忻、夏炯、夏燮,持论大体如方东树。曾国藩虽踵桐城学脉,而就其个人学术旨趣,已趋于汉、宋兼采。道咸之际,宋学派遂为学界汉、宋调和兼采者取代。

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