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什么是婺学?婺学是谁创办的?

来源:麒麟网2016-10-16 16:21:06责编:谢荣人气:
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【内容导读】婺学,又称“吕学”、“金华学派”,是指南宋中期由吕祖谦开创的一个儒家学派,它是南宋“浙东学派”重要的一支。“婺学”之得名,是因为唐宋时期金华名“婺州”之故。吕祖…

婺学,又称“吕学”、“金华学派”,是指南宋中期由吕祖谦开创的一个儒家学派,它是南宋“浙东学派”重要的一支。“婺学”之得名,是因为唐宋时期金华名“婺州”之故。

吕祖谦的家学渊源十分深长,其为学能做到不私一说而兼取其长。他与朱熹、张栻过从甚密,时人以“东南三贤”目之。他又与浙东诸子及江西三陆子(陆九龄、陆九韶、陆九渊)私交也很深,朱熹和陆九渊的“鹅湖之会”,发起者就是吕祖谦(参见本书“吕祖谦”条)。

由吕祖谦创建的“婺学”,在当时有相当影响,与朱熹的“理学”、陆九渊的“心学”齐名并鼎足相抗,全祖望的《宋元学案》中曾说:“宋乾淳以后,学派分而为三:朱学也,吕学也,陆学也。三家同时,皆不甚合。”(《宋元学案》卷五十一《东莱学案》)

吕祖谦一生长期从事教育活动,从其学者甚众,朱熹、张栻这些大儒兼教育家都乐意把子女送到吕祖谦门下就学。在其弟弟吕祖俭的协助下,吕祖谦创建了与岳麓书院齐名气的丽泽书院,“四方之士争趋之”,培养了大批学者,一直影响到明代的学风,“明招学者,自成公(吕祖谦)下世,忠公(吕祖俭)继之,由是递传不替,其与岳麓之泽,并称克世。……明招诸生,历元至明未绝,四百年文献之所寄也……为有明开一代学绪之盛。”(《宋元学案》卷七十三《丽泽诸儒学案》)而在吕祖谦“婺学”的后学中,最为出名的是宋末王应麟。

历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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