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真正建筑诞生 真正意义的建筑诞生过程

来源:麒麟网2016-10-19 09:37:20责编:谢荣人气:
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【内容导读】人类的发展有如文化的接力,农耕社会的到来,引导人们走出洞穴,走出丛林。人们可以用劳动创造生活,来把握自己的命运,同时也开始了人工营造屋室的新阶段,并建立了以自己…

人类的发展有如文化的接力,农耕社会的到来,引导人们走出洞穴,走出丛林。人们可以用劳动创造生活,来把握自己的命运,同时也开始了人工营造屋室的新阶段,并建立了以自己为中心的新秩序,真正意义上的“建筑”诞生了。在母系氏族社会晚期的新石器时代,在仰韶、半坡、姜寨、河姆渡等考古发掘中均有居住遗址的发现。北方仰韶文化遗址多半为半地穴式,但后期的建筑已进展到地面建筑,并已有了分隔成几个房间的房屋。其总体布局有序,颇能反映出母系氏族社会的聚落特色。南方较潮湿地区,“巢居”已演进为初期的干阑式建筑。

如长江下游河姆渡遗址中就发现了许多干阑建筑构件,甚至有较为精细的卯、启口等。龙山文化的住房遗址已有家庭私有的痕迹,出现了双室相联的套间式半穴居,平面成“吕“字型。套间式布置也反映了以家庭为单位的生活。在建筑技术方面,开始广泛地在室内地面上涂抹光洁坚硬的白灰面层,使地面收到防潮、清洁和明亮的效果。在山西陶寺村龙山文化遗址中已出现了白灰墙面上刻画的图案,这是我国已知的最古老的居室装饰。

总之,当原始人真正走出洞穴,走出丛林,开始用自己的劳动创造生活时,也就开始了有目的的人工建造屋室的活动。人们可以按照自己及社会关系的需要建构自己的建筑与村落,同时,在满足了物质生活的基本需要后,精神需要越发成为左右建筑的重要因素。真正意义的建筑诞生了。

历史解密战史风云野史秘闻风云人物文史百科

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